A few of the major types of female fans // a focus on yumejoshi

A few nights ago when the A3! anime was announced, out of morbid curiosity I looked up reactions to whether or not Izumi would appear. A vast majority were begging the producers/creator/whoever is in charge to let her appear because otherwise there would be no story. Personally I feel the same way about Ensemble Stars but the manga and stage play seems to think not, so as fans we never know what’ll happen.

A common reaction I saw from the Japanese fandom was condescension or a general expectation of “yumejoshi are going to riot”, to whether or not Izumi will appear. This made me wonder, why? Aren’t heroines meant to be self-inserts for the player in most cases? Why wouldn’t they want to see their heroine interact with their favourite chars?


I did some research into the notion of “yumejoshi” and present to you my findings.

An intro into major types of female otaku

The major types of female fans:

  • Yumejoshi
  • Fujoshi
  • Otome

What are fujoshi?

Fujoshi (腐女子 lit. rotten girls) are female fans of boy’s love or male homosexual romances.

Both in the Japanese and English fandom (particularly), people still have some trouble differentiating between female otaku and female otaku of MxM pairings and so it ends up misused.

What are otome?

Otome (乙女 lit. maiden), they are similar to yumejoshi, they are female fans of MxF pairings of existing characters, particularly in the cases where no self-insertion occurs. This is where they differ from yumejoshi.

I think on the English speaking side, this word is used mostly as a short hand for otome games (in Japanese they use otomege).

What are yumejoshi?

Firstly, as an umbrella term, yumejoshi (夢女子 lit. dreaming girls) are girls who like shipping chars with themselves aka, they “dream” about being with certain chars. It originates from “dream novels”, fan fiction where you can change the heroine’s name to your own and experience being alongside your favourite characters and forming relationships with them.

Under this falls another two main categories:

  1. those who like to self-insert into an original character that acts as a stand in for themselves
  2. those who like to create an original character that is not meant to be themselves and watch on the sidelines


As the name states, it’s fairly self-explanatory. These people like to imagine that they themselves are part of their favourite character’s life and be their lover/friend etc. They view themselves as the main character of that story.

the infamous eyeless heroine

Non-self-inserters (or as I like to put it, overseers)

They create characters based on any arbitrary thing that doesn’t relate back to themselves (appearance-wise/speech pattern etc.) and pair or place that original character into their favourite character’s world because they think that the chemistry would be interesting/they just want to see something like that happen. It doesn’t matter the motive, but overall they are watching with omnipotence over that storyline as the author and not as a main character. Mary Sues also generally belong under this category within English fandoms.

Media that cater to yumejoshi and otome

In most cases, most media that explicitly cater to yumejoshi have heroines (or in some cases, just a “player character”)  which are primed for self-inserting. These features include but are not constrained to:

  • Facelessness so they can imagine the heroine’s appearance however they want
  • No voice so they can immerse themselves into the role
  • Little to no back story
  • No character development
  • No official name

Changeable names is also a feature

Most female-targeted games for example, such as otome games (female x male main romance games, Yume100, Ikemen Sengoku etc.) and general games (Ensemble Stars, A3!, On Air! etc.), have varying combinations of these features. From my current understanding, as soon as you customise the player character (changing name from default for example), they become a “dream main character” or OC. This is the fundamental difference between yume and otome, as otome treat the player character as just a “female character” rather than a self-insert/OC (that yumejoshi do). 

There is one thing I found pretty interesting, and that is fiction created for one can also be read by the other with enjoyment. For example, if a self-inserter read some fanfiction with an original character which they thought was similar to themselves, they could still self-insert fine and vice-versa. In this case, fan works for yumejoshi can be fairly broad.

Conflicts stemming from different motives

Some yumejoshi are so dedicated to the way they imagine the story to go, if there is ever any development which would contradict their view, they will feel crushed.

Such is the case when anime of such media are announced. Anime is a passive experience as opposed to gaming, and unless the anime goes the way of treating the audience members as the “player character” as in the case of the A3! and Yume100 stage plays, it means there’ll be a “canon player character” or “story development” which deviates from their own expectation. Anime rarely ever take this path and are usually met with ridicule, at least in the English anime fandom (ie. in the case of Makura Danshi).

When the story deviates from the yumejoshi’s personal expectation, there will be some who riot. This is probably one of the main reasons behind Ensemble Stars (manga, stage play) and Touken Ranbu Hanamaru (anime) opting to remove/sideline their player char from adaptations.

the saniwa (touken ranbu hanamaru) is only ever mentioned but never appears

Cheating?! On ME?!

Another reason is as in real relationships, most people would not like it if their partner cheated on them. The same go for yumejoshi. If they view that a certain char is “meant” to be either themselves/a character they designed, and then the official work shows another version they deem unworthy, they will feel “cheated on”. Of course this is most likely a vocal minority of yumejoshi but like most things, give a bad reputation to the label yumejoshi.

Before anyone else goes on to agree with the bad reputation, I’d like to provide a counter-narrative.

This is not unrelated to the idea of OTPs and NOTPs in the English fandom. Just as some yumejoshi are unwilling to accept anything aside from CharA x themselves, some fujoshi are also unwilling to accept anything aside from CharA x CharB. And some otome shipper is also unwilling to accept anything aside from CharA x heroine. Like I’ve mentioned before, people like are this are probably uncommon.

Yumejoshi vs. Fujoshi?

In the Japanese fandom, there’s a general misunderstanding that yumejoshi and fujoshi are always at odds because of the inherent difference in stance. Fujoshi (腐女子 lit. rotten girls) are female fans of boy’s love or male homosexual romances.

As yumejoshi like to see themselves or someone they designed with CharA, fujoshi are fans of seeing CharA get together his best friend/enemy Mr. CharB. And because of this, I’ve seen cases where each one talks down to the other, which is obviously discourteous but also disgusting.

More likely than not, nowadays fandoms are full of people who believe they are both yumejoshi and fujoshi, meaning they have no reason to go hating on each part of themselves.

The loser in both cases

When you put strictly yumejoshi and fujoshi together, there’s probably a subset that have one thing they will agree on: the existing heroine is in the way.

Fans from both groups can and will go out of their way to remove or belittle the existence of the canon player character. And this is likely due to deep-seated misogyny.

So like, I hope people stop arguing that either is better when both can be just as bad.

The player character/heroine as an independent character in the story

As someone who does not self-insert and is not interested in creating another character to break canon, I wondered what this would fall under. Aside from a tiny mention on one article I was reading about yumejoshi, there was no mention of any non-original/non-self-inserting yumejoshi. Which made me wonder what it even meant.

as in the case of Cardia…I’d think most people would find her hard to self-insert into

I touched on this earlier but to reiterate, the view that an otome game heroine or normal game heroine (eg. Anzu; Enstars, Izumi; A3!, Hikari; On Air!) was just another character in the game is not specifically a yumejoshi trait, and apparently makes you neither a yumejoshi or fujoshi but…….otome.

In Japanese fan media, some ships with the player characters are labelled as “yume” purely because these characters have not been developed to the same extent as the other cast members (eg. in the case of Touken Ranbu’s saniwa) and their purpose is mainly for self inserting regardless of whether you do it or not.

Mix and match

Personally I think most people do not have a single interest so most fans are likely to be a mixture of all types.

While the vast majority of yumejoshi media exists as MxF, MxM media exists also. But fundamentally it is still self-insert/oc x charA. Yumejoshi that enjoy these are essentially a hybrid yumefujoshi.

Bonus round

Girls that enjoy FxF romances are called himejoshi (姫女子 lit. princess girls), originating from the girl’s love magazine Yuri Hime. FxF romances with yume elements are then called himeyume stories. There seems to be far fewer himejoshi than the others mentioned though.

Summary and conclusion

Self insert/OC MxF MxM

Ultimately there are going to be fans anywhere that we would agree or disagree with, even if you are both under the same label of yumejoshi and in the end the label is also just a label and no one is necessarily going to care.

The main reason this would be important is to help people identify things which may be of interest to themselves if they do not know where to look.

The only common thread amongst yumejoshi appear to be the idea of creating a ship that they can control, either through self inserting or original characters.

I hope this was interesting and educational in a super nerdy way because I’m always curious about things that are stupidly inconsequential and then have nowhere to throw up all this information to.

Thanks to Emong for pointing out the otome side.


Filed under Cage stuff

3 responses to “A few of the major types of female fans // a focus on yumejoshi

  1. Oooh this is a very interesting post! Thank your for compiling all this information and presenting it in a way that makes sense.
    Now that I think about it myself, I am someone who does not self-insert, but then also does not have any apprehensions about MxM or FxF relationships, so would I fit under “otome + fujoshi + himejoshi” 🤔? At that point it makes me think I’m just Aijoshi 😅.

    You’ve mentioned playing otome, but what other labels would you use to describe yourself :)?

  2. Really enjoyed reading this and I completely agree about deep-seated misogyny being a reason why so many fans hate on the female character. It’s pretty depressing. I’d classify my interests as Otome (no surprise there rofl) because I love getting sucked into a new world and seeing how the characters get through whatever obstacles come their way. I try my hardest to root for the heroine and if something about her frustrates me I take a hard look at both her situation, then myself, and wonder if it’s due to my own biases or because the writers couldn’t figure out how to develop their own character.

    Enju from Hyakka Hyakuro, Cardia Beckford, Ritsuka from Dance with Devils and Saki from Sweet Fuse are among my favorite characters. Each are very different but all of them have moments of weakness and insecurity and each of them all put their all into their goals. I really admire that about them and when I love the heroine I end up really wanting the other guys to be fantastic partners for her. Perhaps that’s what you were explaining as the shipping thing. I’ve tried to self-insert but I just can’t do it – no matter how blank a slate the heroine is, it feels too strange and there’s always something they’ll do or say I never would. It feels like reading a fanfic in 2nd person and it doesn’t work for me.

    Maybe it’s because I love reading books but I can’t ever see a character as myself. I just see the character and I hope for the best for them.

  3. Sun

    That was so interesting. I was so captivated that I even forgot everything I was doing, LOL. I like how you organize yourself, it’s so interesting and good. You don’t miss anything, and it’s so important. I love your sense of humor, also XD It makes me a little bit sad that you don’t make posts since a few months. My fear is that you are gonna dissapear like my other favs D:

    Anyways. I indentified myself so hard as an Otome XD But like, I honestly don’t care too much about self-insert. It may sounds weird, but, I actually love female protagonists, and also – love when they have a deep history behind them. It seems like there’s nothing missing when it happens, and seems to be a good thing to some stories. Sometimes.

    Oh, well. I identify myself as Fujoshi and Himejoshi too. [Basically, I’m everywhere, LOOOOL]. It just seemed difficult to think of me as someone who would be a Yumejoshi… ~ Thinking hard ~ I don’t know.

    Well, I hope you come back soon ❤ And, sorry about my english that is a mess, aaaah. It's not my native language XD

    ~ Have an awesome day! Cheers ~

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